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Diseases associated with infiltration of spiriva muscle with pathological tissues that make it difficult to conduct through the AV node: sarcoidosis; hypothyroidism; hemochromatosis; Lyme disease; endocarditis. The degree of AV conduction can also be affected by systemic diseases: ankylosing spondylitis and Reiter's syndrome.

First-degree atrioventricular block may result from delayed conduction in the atrium, AV node, bundle of His, or pedicles. The dominant site of impulse delay is the AV node (in 83% of patients). Atrial or AV node conduction delay in grade I AVB is transient or stable and may slowly progress towards higher degrees of AV block.

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Iatrogenic causes of AV block (associated with medical intervention): aortic valve replacement; surgery for hypertrophic cardiomyopathy; correction of congenital heart defects; some drugs: digoxin, beta-blockers, adenosine and other antiarrhythmics.

Atrioventricular block II degree Mobits type I (Wenckebach) is caused by a slowdown in conduction in the AV node in 72% of cases and in the His bundle system in 28%. Wenckebach cycles can also be modified under the influence of other phenomena (for example, supernormal conduction or bradycardia-dependent delays and conduction blocks). In addition, complete dissociation of contractions between the atria and ventricles can cause the simultaneous occurrence of second-degree blockade in several places. In rare cases, blocking of two consecutive P-waves is noted in the Wenckebach cycle. In some cases, this can be explained by the presence of a blockade at two different sites, in others, only one block site is documented.

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In Mobits type II degree AV block, the P-R intervals preceding the dropped contraction are always constant and do not change even after the dropped contraction. In cases that meet the last criterion, Mobitz type II AV block is limited to the His-Purkinje system (35% of cases at the level of the His bundle and 65% in the distal part of the His-Purkinje system).

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Second-degree atrioventricular block in the AV node has a relatively favorable course and does not lead to sudden asystole. According to the conventional wisdom, second-degree AV block in the His-Purkinje system often progresses towards complete atrioventricular block and Morgagni-Adams-Stokes attacks, which requires the implantation of a pacemaker.

Complete AV block can be localized in three places: AV node in 16-25% of cases; bundle of His in 14-20%; legs of the bundle of His in 56-68% of cases. Complete AV block may be the result of congenital or acquired pathology. Congenital complete Tiotropium bromide block is not always localized in the AV node, sometimes it occurs in the bundle of His, especially in its middle part.

It is likely that the magnitude of the antibody titer (1:16 and higher) affects the occurrence of an autoimmune lesion of the atrioventricular junction.

In the presence of SS-A/Ro and SS-B/La antibodies in the mother and VPAVD in the child, an association with the following HLA haplotypes was established: A1, A8, DR3, MB2, and MT2. Such HLA haplotypes as DR2, MB1/MT1 are typical for mothers with a positive antibody titer and children without VPAVD.

If the second degree of blockade leads to interruptions in the heartbeat, then the third degree is distinguished by more vivid symptoms: darkening in the eyes, confusion, loss of consciousness, acrocyanosis, convulsions. Partial atrioventricular blockade does not manifest itself in any way.

Symptoms directly depend on the degree of blockade, the level of its damage, the patency of electrical impulses, and the presence of other diseases in a person. With the correct rhythm of the heart, there are no symptoms, it is difficult to notice the blockage of the node at the initial stage.

Only on sharp declinesHeart rate in a patient shows signs: shortness of breath, weakness, pain in the chest, dizziness, up to loss of consciousness, fainting.

Apoptosis is an indispensable component of morphogenesis, acts as an intermediary between hormonal and immunological factors, and provides homeostatic stability between hypertrophy and atrophy, or a combination of both.

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